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[双语文摘] 隆胸:第一个50年

It is half a century since silicone breast enlargement became available一rcd it is still the most popular cosmetic-surgery' procedure' in the US and the UK What does this tell us about the society we live in?

 硅胶隆胸已经存在了半个世纪,如今仍然是美国和英国最受欢迎的整形手术.这说明我们生活在一个怎样的社会?

 

 It was in 1962 that Timmie Jean Lindsey was offered a solution to a non-existent problem. A factory worker from Texas, she had married at 15, had six children, divorced in her mid-20s, and *taken up with a man who encouraged her to have a vine tattooed6 on her cleavage'. Roses tumbled across her breasts. When the relationship faltered, Lindsey decided she wanted the tattoos removed. "I was ashamed," she says, "and I needed them taken off" Her low-paid work made her eligible for treatment at a charity hospital, where she was told the tattoo could be removed through dermabrasion. And the doctors had another proposal. Had she ever thought about breast implants?

那是1962年,有人就一个并不存在的问题向蒂米·琼·林赛提供了一种解决方案。林赛当时在得克萨斯州一家工厂当工人。她巧岁结婚,生了6个孩子,二十五六岁离婚,交往了一个怂恿她在乳沟处纹上藤蔓的男人。玫瑰花她的胸部摇曳。两人关系破裂后,林赛决定要把文身洗掉。“我感到羞耻,”她说,“我需要把它们弄掉。”她薪水很低,因此有资格在一家慈善医院接受治疗。在那里,她被告知可以用皮肤削磨术去除文身。医生们还有另一个提议。她是否想过植人隆胸?

 

Lindsey had not. She'd never felt self-conscious about her breasts一and even if she had, the options at that time were primitive and problematic, involving substances injected directly into women's chests, or implants made of sponge. "The only person I'd ever talked to about breast implants was my cousin," says Lindsey, "who had had some kind of surgery. She said: `Sometimes I wake up and my breast has moved to another part of my body,' and I thought: `My God. I never want that.' It wasn't long after she and I talked that I came into contact with these doctors."

 

                

林赛没想过这个。她从未对自己的乳房感到不自在。就算感到过不自在,当时的选项也简单粗糙,而且很成问题,需要把一些物质直接注射进女性的胸部,甚至植人海绵制成的假体。“我只跟表妹一个人谈起过隆胸的事儿,”林赛说,“她做过某种手术。她说:‘有时候我醒来后发现,我的乳房竟然跑到身体另一个地方去了。’我当时想:‘天啊。我可不想那样。’她和我说过这件事不久,我就接触到这些大夫。”

 

 The team was led by Dr Thomas Cronin, who had been developing the world's first silicone breast implants. Thomas Biggs, then 29, and a surgical resident" under Cronin, says the idea came about when one of his colleagues, Frank Gerow, went to the blood bank. "They'd stopped putting liquids in glass bottles, and begun putting them into plastic bags," says Biggs, "and he was walking in the hall with this bag of blood, and felt that it had the softness of a breast."Around the same time, Cronin travelled "to New Orleans to a *plastic surgery meeting and encountered a former resident of his. This fellow told him there was a company who had a new product which was interesting because it had very little body reaction, and could be made into a variety of thicknesses, a variety of viscosities, all the way from liquid to solid. If you can make a solid, you can make a bag一and if you can make a liquid, you can make something that goes in it."

这个医疗团队由托马斯·克罗宁博士负责,他一直在研制世界上第一种隆胸用的硅胶植人体。当时29岁的托马斯·比格斯是克罗宁带的一名住院外科实习医师,他说,这种想法是他的同事弗兰克·杰罗去血站时想到的。比格斯说:“人们已经不再把液体放在玻璃瓶里,而开始使用塑料袋,他当时拿着这么一袋血在大厅里走,觉得它有乳房一样柔软的触感。”大概在同一时间,克罗宁前往“新奥尔良参加一次整形手术会议,遇见了过去一个跟他实习的医师。这个人告诉他,某家公司有一种新产品,这种新产品引人关注,因为它对身体引起的反应极小,而且可以制成各种密度,各种粘度,从液体直到固体。如果你能做出固体,你就可以做个袋子;如果你能做出液体,你就可以把它放进袋子里”。

 

 Cronin had the idea for a breast implant. A prototype was created, and implanted into a dog called Esmeralda. "That worked OK," says Biggs, "and so then they got to Timmie Lindsey." She's 80 today, still living in Texas, working night shifts in a care home, and those first, experimental globes remain in her chest.

克罗宁想到植人式隆胸。他们做出一个原型,植人一只名叫埃斯梅拉尔达的狗的体内。比格斯说:“效果不错,于是他们去找蒂米·林赛。”她如今已经80岁了,仍然住在得克萨斯,在一家养老院值夜班。那两个最初的试验性的球体仍然在她胸部。

 

 The 50-year history of breast implants had begun, a history of controversy and success. What no one knew back then was just how phenomenally" popular breast augmentation's surgery would become一the last available figures from the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery show it was the most popular form of cosmetic surgery in the US in 2010, with 318,123 augmentations performed. It is also the most popular cosmetic operation in the UK. While there are no overall figures for cosmetic surgery here, those collected by the British Association of Aesthetic Plastic Surgeons (BAAPS), which represent around a third of the market, show 9,418 women had breast augmentation in 2010, a rise of more than 10% from the previous year.

植人式隆胸半个世纪的历史从此开始:这是一段争议的历史,也是一段成功的历史。当时没有人知道,隆胸手术日后会变得多么受人欢迎。美国美容整形外科学会可以查到的最新数字显示,2010年,这是美国最受欢迎的整形手术,一共实施了318123例。隆胸也是英国最受欢迎的整形手术。虽然这里没有整体数字,但英国美容整形外科医师协会收集的数字(占市场份额的1/3)显示,2010年有9418位女性隆胸,比前一年增长10%以上。

 

It's estimated between 5 and 10 million womem worldwide have had the surgery, many for cosmetic reasons, and a significant proportion for reconstruction following a mastectomy, or for transsexual people transitioning from male to female. But concern around them has never abated, with the most recent row being one of the most disturbing, and vexed. In 2010, after concerns about ruptures in implants made by French company Poly Implant Prosthesis(PIP), it emerged the company had been filling them not with the medical-grade silicone that had won them a CE mark, and the right to sell them in Europe一but industrial-grade silicone, otherwise used to make mattresses. In December last year it was reported that the faulty implants had been tentatively linked to cancer in France. Eight women whose PIP implants had failed had had the disease, including one who suffered a rare form of lymphoma28 and died. Street protests began in France, the French state health service said it would pay to remove the implants, and similar calls began here.

据估计,全世界有500万至1000万女性做过这种手术,很多人是为美容,也有相当一部分是在乳房切除术以后整形修复,或者是变性人从男性变成女性。但对这类手术的担忧从未消减,而最近发生的纠纷则是最令人不安和恼火的纠纷之一。2010年,法国聚植人修复体公司(简称PIP)生产的假体发生破裂引发担忧后,人们发现,这家公司给患者植人的不是使他们获得CE认证(一种安全认证标志,被视为制造商打开并进人欧洲市场的护照—译注)并有权在欧洲销售的医疗用硅胶,而是原本用来制造床垫的工业级硅胶。去年12月有报道称,在法国,这种有问题的假体据推测与癌症有关。8名PIP假体出问题的女性患上癌症,其中一人患上罕见的淋巴癌后死亡。法国开始出现街头抗议,法国卫生部门说将负责支付摘除这种假体的费用,英国也出现类似的呼吁。

 

Why do women risk it? Of all the areas of the body that could be modified, or augmented, why are the breasts the focus of such an enormous proportion of cosmetic surgeries? As the PIP story has unfolded, some have commented that they can understand why mastectomy patients might want the operation, but not women who have it solely for cosmetic reasons. This seems slightly disingenuous. Because if it is, of course, understandable that someone might want a breast that had been removed to be reconstructed, it's surely not such an enormous leap'0 to imagine why someone with very small breasts might want the operation too. Still, the numbers remain astonishing, a testament to discomfort and self-loathing", to a culture that has come to see bodies一especially women's bodies一as endlessly open to modification. The fact that the rise of breast implant surgery has taken place *in tandem with the rise of second-wave feminism, only makes this more perplexing.*

女性为什么要冒这样的风险?在身体上可以修整或改进的所有部位中,为什么这么大比例的整形手术都集中在乳房?随着PIP事态的展开,有些人评论说,他们可以理解为什么乳房切除术患者可能想做这样的手术,但理解不了那些单纯为美容而做手术的女性。这似乎有点不真诚。因为如果某人在乳房被切除后想重造一个当然可以理解,那么乳房很小的人想做这样的手术显然并非那么难以理解。即便如此,数字仍然令人震惊。这些数字是苦恼和自我僧恶的切实证据,是一种认为身体、尤其是女性身体可以接受无穷无尽修整的文化的切实证据。隆胸手术的流行与第二波女性主义运动同步出现,这种情况让问题更令人困惑。

 

 Many breast augmentation doctors are male, but it's too simple to suggest it's just an operation imposed on women by men. The writer Teresa Riordan, former patents columnist for the New York Times, and author of the book Inventing Beauty, analysed the beauty industry between the mid-19th and mid-20th centuries, "and it was just phenomenal the different contraptions women had used to augment their breasts. I was astounded, because I thought it would be mostly men who had invented these breast augmentations, but actually it was mostly women." She uncovered a 19th-century book called The Ugly-Girl Papers, "which basically advised just rubbing your breasts very harshly with an abrasive towel to pump them up".There were suction devices, and a wire device used to create a bird cage effect around the breasts.

 很多隆胸医生是男性,但如果说这是男性强加给女性的手术却是过于简单了。《发明美丽》一书的作者、《纽约时报》前专利权专栏作家特雷莎·赖尔登分析19世纪中叶至20世纪中叶的美容产业时说,“女性用来隆胸的各种发明创造太奇妙了。我感到震惊,因为我以为这些隆胸手段大都是男性发明的,但实际上却是女性。”她发掘出一本19世纪的书,称作《丑女文论》,“这本书大致上建议用一块粗糙的毛巾大力地摩擦乳房,让乳房膨胀起来。”当时还有吸压工具,以及一种用来在乳房周围制造鸟笼效果的金属线装置。

 

Virginia L Blum, English professor at the University of Kentucky, and author of Flesh Wounds, a study of cosmetic surgery, says breast implants have become normalised in the past few decades. "I was watching an actress on screen the other day, and it was clear she had breast implants, and I thought, well, actually, I see that all the time. It's unnatural-looking, but it has become natural to see it. It's part of our aesthetic landscape. I think it's now considered not extreme, but rather routine maintenance…saggy breasts are no longer considered an inevitable result of childbirth, but rather experienced as a deficit."

 肯塔基大学的英语教授、整形手术研究《肉体创伤》的作者弗吉尼亚·L.布卢姆说,隆胸在这几十年已经正常化了。“我有天看着电视上的一个女演员,她显然隆过胸,我想,噢,这种情况其实太多了。那看起来很不自然,但见到这种现象却变得很自然。这是我们审美现实的一部分。我认为,隆胸如今已经不再被看成过分的做法,而是很正常的维护……下垂的乳房不再被看做生育的必然结果,而是某种缺陷。”

 

 Ninety per cent of all cosmetic surgery operations are performed on women, and Blum thinks this is because "women continue to experience their body as more mutable". I think women are raised around a fashionmagazine culture in which we realise we can work on different body parts一we can divide and conquer. Plastic surgery approaches the body in much the same way that women are trained from girlhood to approach their bodies. Male bodies are not quite as available to that model, although I think they are becoming increasingly so".

90%的整形手术都以女性为对象,布卢姆认为这是因为“女性继续把身体当做可以变来变去的东西。我认为女性是依据时尚杂志文化被培养成人的,在这种文化中,我们意识到自己可以改造不同的身体部位—我们可以分而治之。整形手术对待身体的方式在很大程度上和女性从儿时起就被训练如何对待自己的身体没有多少区别。男性的身体就不太容易受制于这种模式,但我认为他们现在也越来越有这种趋势”。

 

 Blum sees surgery as being related to consumption."You've consumed this body transformation, and you have a really great feeling, and you want to sustain that feeling. That's the thing with surgery: once you're in it, you're in it. You either have a bad result, and have to re-do the surgery because the result was insufficient, or the result was really great, and you want to reproduce that intoxicated feeling".

 布卢姆认为,手术与消费有关。“你消费这种身体转变,然后产生很棒的感觉,你想维持那种感觉。手术的问题就在这儿:一旦做了,你就摆脱不掉。要么做坏了,要么效果不够必须再做,要么效果特别好,你还想再次体验那种陶醉的感觉。”

 

 The writer Jennifer Hayashi Danns, author of Stripped, also sees breast implants as an operation keenly related to materialism. Now 28, Danns worked in a lap-dancing club in her early 20s, where there was constant discussion of breast implants一it sounds like a much heightened version of everyday British pop culture, with our ubiquitous breast implant advertisements, bared breasts in newspapers and on magazine covers, women with breast implants filling the casts of reality TV shows, as well as easily available pornography. Danns felt confident about her body when she started at the club, but after eight months she had implants to increase from a C cup to a DD. She regrets the operation now, but at the time there was a feeling of "instant gratification4z" she says. "It wasn't a question of profound, long-term happiness. It felt like getting a new car, or a new bag."

《脱光》一书的作者、作家詹妮弗·藤林·丹斯也认为,植人隆胸是一种与物质主义密切相关的手术。28岁的丹斯20出头时曾在一家脱衣舞夜总会工作,那里的人们不停地讨论隆胸—听起来就像英国日常流行文化的升级版。在这种文化里,隆胸广告随处可见,报纸和杂志封面上可以看到赤裸的乳房,隆过胸的女性充斥着真人秀节目,色情作品随便就可以弄到。丹斯刚开始在夜总会工作时对自己的身体很自信,但8个月以后她做了隆胸,从C罩杯升至DD。她现在后悔做这个手术,但她说,当时感觉到一种“即刻的满足”。她说:“不是什么长久深刻的快乐。那种感觉就像买了一部新车,或者一个新包。”

 

 The popularity of cosmetic breast implants also reflects just how utterly *in thrall we are, as a culture, too' gender distinctions. The breasts are the biggest physical sign we have of difference, and perhaps, *at base's, that's why they're so enormously popular. "It's an external symbol of a woman's gender, and we need and want that affirmation," says Biggs. He has been involved in more than 8,000 breast implant operations during the course of his career, and says he "began to realise the magnitude of the importance of the breast to a woman, and to how she feels about herself. So people can make jokes that the breast implants are done to attract men, or maybe to make other women envious. And there may be some minimal elements of truth there. But the real truth is that it helps her confirm to herself her own gender." Biggs and I *talk through" some of the complications"g he has seen during his career一of the 11 women who were implanted at the same time as Lindsey, "all were successful, but they all had troubles, and problems',一and I ask whether the experimental nature of what he was doing, in inserting sacks of silicone into women, ever worried him "Oh no," he says. "I'm not a worrier.".

   植人式隆胸的流行也反映出我们的社会是多么彻底地受制于性的区别。乳房是人类两性差异最大的身体特征,也许,从根本上说,正因为如此隆胸才那么受欢迎。比格斯说:“这是女性的外在标志,我们需要这种确认,想要这种确认。”他在职业生涯中参与了8000多例隆胸手术,他说他“开始意识到乳房对女性的重要性,对女性自我感觉的重要性。所以人们可能开玩笑说隆胸是为吸引男人,或者让别的女人嫉妒。这也可能有一点点真实的成分。然而,实情是,这帮助她确认自己的性别”。比格斯和我详细讨论了他在从医过程中遇到的一些并发症。与林赛同时期隆胸的11位女性“手术都取得成功,但也都遇到麻烦和问题”。他当时采取的手段(在女性体内植人袋装的硅)是试验性的,我问他这是否让他不安,他说:“噢,没有.我不是爱担心的人。”

    (赵菲菲译注自The Guardian Jan.1,2012)

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